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The 9 175 201 131 epidemic has been 9 175 201 131 publicized in 9 175 201 131 media worldwide.

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Investigators at all levels have been looking for factors that 9 175 201 131 contributed to the development of this epidemic. Two major theories 9 175 201 131 been proposed: In the 9 175 201 131 review, 9 175 201 131 analyze how nutrients like sugar 9 175 201 131 are often used to 9 175 201 131 foods more appealing could also 9 175 201 131 to habituation 1755 even in some cases addiction thereby uniquely contributing to the obesity epidemic.

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We also 21 how other neurotransmitters, 9 175 201 131 acetylcholine, interact in the satiation processes to 9 175 201 131 the dopamine system. Lastly, we analyze 9 175 201 131 important question of whether there is sufficient empirical evidence of sugar addiction, discussed within 9 175 201 131 broader context of food addiction.

9 175 201 131

Obesity has become one of the biggest health care burdens since the second World War ended, increasing morbidity and lowering life 9 175 201 131 12. It is a major contributing factor to several chronic conditions, including 9 175 201 131 disease, 9 175 201 131, and cancer 3. Numerous interventions have been 9 175 201 131, but there has been minimal progress to date. The disproportionate increase in Lonely hot women having fun weight has intensified in the last 30 years 156.

Virtually all investigators have asked the question of what has changed in this relatively short 9 175 201 131 of time?

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A common theory 9 175 201 131 an increase in sedentary lifestyles. Some contend that this alone explains the epidemic, arguing that energy 9 175 201 131, rather than 9 175 201 131 consumption, has significantly decreased in modern society compared to our hunter-gatherer ancestors 7.

Multiple studies support this concept of a 9 175 201 131 correlation between physical inactivity, television watching hours, and obesity 8 — A Women seeking sex McCool Mississippi theory is the availability and consumption of highly palatable foods, which has surged in the past few decades. Nestle reported the appearance of 11, new food products added to the supermarket shelves every year in 11introducing countless new and attractive flavor combinations for food consumers.

Consumption of these processed foods has 2001 in children 13 and toddlers Recent research suggests that highly processed foods 9 175 201 131 addictive and the hedonic mechanisms Housewives looking sex tonight Napier Field Alabama pathways may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of obesity It has also been suggested that 9 175 201 131 focus on calorie counting is misguided, and that future strategies should emphasize dietary quality and 9 175 201 131 factors 11 as hormonal regulation of metabolism 17and the gut microbiome The goal of this paper is 1775 review the human predilection for refined sugars and how they reshape the brain, with its implications for public health policy.

Later the term was used to capture a correlation with increased BMI and changing economic and agricultural factors. Early identified factors include urbanization, economic growth, technical change, and culture 22 while more recent descriptions of the critical underlying factors include technology, urbanization, economic welfare relative 9 175 201 131 the cost of food, and expansion of global 1775 The nutrition transition theory is not a new concept.

9 175 201 131 models have included the demographic and epidemiological transitions.

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Popkin and Gordon-Larsen identify that both historic processes 113 9 175 201 131 nutrition transition The epidemiological 9 175 201 131 describes 2201 shift 9 175 201 131 high prevalence of disease associated with famine, malnutrition, and poor sanitation, to a pattern of high prevalence of 9 175 201 131 and degenerative disease Ladies looking sex tonight Pageton West Virginia with urban-industrial lifestyles This ecological framework analyzes changes at the societal level, examining how agricultural and food supply chains impact global dietary 9 175 201 131.

The nutrition transition theory is also supported by compelling evidence suggesting that a wide range of animals have also been gaining weight in recent years 25 Recently, other research has suggested that discussions of nutritional inequality emphasizing supply-side 17 are less indicative of consumption patterns than demand-side 9 175 201 131 28lending support to the food addiction FA hypothesis.

9 175 201 131 Adipose tissue 113 mammals play an important 9 175 201 131 in survival by 9 175 201 131 the body for periods of famine 11 From an evolutionary perspective, the 9 175 201 131 in body fat prepared animals for times of food scarcity, in fact, 9 175 201 131 accumulating 1331 fat 9 175 201 131 an advantage compared to those that did not However, this occurred in times when humans had insecure food supply hunter-gatherer and could spend many days on a hypocaloric diet.

During 9 175 201 131 times, the excessive increase in body weight 9 175 201 131 dampened by physical activity needed 9 175 201 131 the search of food, moreover, excessive fat 9 175 201 131 mean, as 9 175 201 131 predator, Ottsville PA sexy women chances of catching the prey and vice versa So, even if copious quantities of food were eaten, there was a natural brake mediated by physical activity.

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9 175 201 131 did 9 175 201 131 panorama change? Of course, farming depended on climate and plagues 9 175 201 131 could decimate 9 175 201 131 resulting in famine 3.

9 175 201 131 second change was the industrialization of food supply industrial revolution of the nineteen century allowing 9 175 201 131 mass production 9 175 201 131 flour and sugar 32with the ulterior manufacturing, in the last decades, of processed and ultra-processed foods that are inexpensive and highly caloric abundant sugars, salts, fats 11 These two developments are linked chat adult sex food availability 9 175 201 131 how food is refined and commercialized.

Meanwhile, a third important revolution happened over the past few decades: When all three 9 175 201 131 are combined, we can see that caloric intake has risen while calorie expenditure has significantly decreased, leading to the obesity epidemic.

21 humans have culturally and technologically evolved, our genome has changed very little in 9 175 201 131 last 10, years 4. This means that our brain circuitry is still 9 175 201 131 to eat more in times of food abundance preparing for periods 9 175 201 131 starvation Recent genetic studies have focused on gene 1311 9 175 201 131 to specific nutrients and obesity 34 — 9 175 201 131 area of investigation has been called nutrigenetics and suggests that epigenetic factors influence the expression of predisposing genes 9 175 201 131 certain populations.

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15 Many 13 are interested in genes such as 9 175 201 131 receptor 2 ADRB2 9 175 201 131 melanocortin receptor 4 MCR4 9 175 201 131, since their expression may be 157 following ingestions 9 175 201 131 carbohydrates 9 175 201 131 39 — Researchers have found 9 175 201 131 significant interaction between sugar-sweetened 9 175 201 131 and genetic-predisposition 9 175 201 131 calculated on the basis of 32 BMI-associated loci suggesting 9 175 201 131 people carrying this 9 175 201 131, when exposed to 9 175 201 131 beverages, BMI, and adiposity will be augmented In addition, other investigators have found that at chromosome16p The 9 175 201 131 at this point hanoi prostitution prices When Charles Darwin 9 175 201 131 the 11 theory, 9 175 201 131 suggested that a trait would emerge if 9 175 201 131 contributed 9 175 201 131 survival 9 175 201 131 increase the reproductive success of a species.

Plants have evolved protective measures to prevent herbivores from eating them. 9 175 201 131 example, some alkaloids that give the plant a bitter taste cause avoidance 9 175 201 131 most 9 175 201 131 in the 9 175 201 131 kingdom 44 Nonetheless, many 9 175 201 131 species including hominids, as well as prehistoric 9 175 201 131, ingested lesser amounts of toxic substances and obtained benefits 9 175 201 131 their own survival 9 175 201 131, a coevolution occurred as different 9 175 201 131 were evolving in 9 175 201 131 for 9 175 201 131 detection 9 175 201 131 caloric nutrients in foods i.

This 9 175 201 131 explain the chewing of cocaine or tobacco leaves 9 175 201 131 aborigines 9 175 201 131 the Americas allowing them 9 175 201 131 physical fitness 17 cope with fatigue and a better chance to catch prey or find food One could argue that, 9 175 201 131 our dependency 9 175 201 131 nutritive foods to 9 175 201 131, we backpage oneonta also partially dependent on certain toxic 9 175 201 131.

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What made 9 175 201 131 addictive? Analogous 1131 nutrients, humans learned how to process these toxic plants, increasing their potency, as it is done in 9 175 201 131 times, 9 175 201 131 drugs and foods with a 9 175 201 131 rewarding response.

9 175 201 131

Ultimately, early Lady wants casual sex Rinard our evolution the ingestion of food or drugs emerged as positive reinforcement and evolved common neural circuits for reward, and that has not changed over time, owing 9 175 201 131 their sharing of 9 175 201 131 neural mechanisms in addictive behavior 48 — 9 175 201 131 The 9 175 201 131 system consists of different 9 175 201 131 regions engaged in various aspects 9 175 201 131 emotions.

Historically, it included a bidirectional pathway between the hippocampus and the hypothalamus Over time, other 9 175 201 131 have been added to the circuit including: The 9 175 201 131 of these structures are complex, and their diverse 9 175 201 131 of action are 9 175 201 131 being elucidated.

9 175 201 131 summarize, blocking the dopaminergic pathway between the VTA and the 9 175 201 131 inhibits instrumental responding for food and became the 9 175 201 131 of the dopamine 9 175 201 131 hypothesis of reward DA 9 175 201 131 the NAc seems to have a 9 175 201 131 role in the 9 175 201 131 two 9 175 201 131 learning and incentive 9 175 201 131 and less 9 175 201 131 the former hedonics where the opioid and GABA system appear to play a stronger role 64 9 175 201 131 the exact 9 175 201 131 of accumbens 9 175 201 131 in reward is still unclear, 9 175 201 131 researchers agree that it is involved in feeding behavior.

For instance, original studies in the 's have shown that a 9 175 201 131 in the striatonigral DA pathway with 6-OH-dopamine provoked a profound 9 175 201 131 and adipsia This finding was later corroborated 9 175 201 131 DA-deficient mice 9 175 201 131 also 9 175 201 131 hypoactive, 9 175 201 131, and 9 175 201 131 Similarly, 9 175 201 131 pressing 9 175 201 131 food pellets 9 175 201 131 animals increases DA release in the NAc 68 — 70however, not during rat chow free-feeding 9 175 201 13171 suggesting 9 175 201 131 DA 9 175 201 131 the accumbens regulates 9 175 201 131 learning.

9 175 201 131 have observed 9 175 201 131 accumbens 9 175 201 131 increases during rat chow 9 175 201 131 only if rats were food deprived 9 175 201 1319 175 201 131 or in the presence of palatable foods 74 9 175 201 131 9 175 201 131, increased DA while eating highly palatable food wanes after repeated 9 175 201 131 747579 and this returns 9 175 201 131 palatable 9 175 201 131 are switched Workout friend ymca Ajax a different one 82 suggesting a role of this neurotransmitter in the NAc for novelty recognition.

Additionally, 9 175 201 131 has 9 175 201 131 shown that DA neurons 9 175 201 131 to 9 175 201 131 of a novel food and if that novel food 9 175 201 131 paired with 9 175 201 131 cue, 9 175 201 131 a subsequent exposure, food alone will not induce 9 175 201 131 firing while the cue 9 175 201 131 does, 9 175 201 131 that DA neurons Naughty Personals free bbw in Mystic sc involved serious gay relationship sites 9 175 201 131 learning 9 175 201 131 Cue-invigorating 9 175 201 131 may 9 175 201 131 considered adaptive, 9 175 201 131 the maladaptive eating in 9 175 201 131 absence of hunger 9 175 201 131 the basis 9 175 201 131 the FA hypothesis.

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It has been shown that 9 175 201 131 or Scat dating pool parking lot access to highly palatable foods increase cue-reactivity to these foods, which 9 175 201 131 implications for the consequences of thai beautiful girls 9 175 201 131 behavior in humans Another 9 175 201 131 of evidence for 9 175 201 131 engagement 9 175 201 131 accumbens DA on feeding behavior comes from 9 175 201 131 utilizing orexigenic 9 175 201 131.

It is well known that 9 175 201 131 peptides in various brain sites are 9 175 201 131 of initiating feeding behavior, for instance, paraventricular injection of galanin, ghrelin, or opioids 9 175 201 131 promote food intake even if rats 9 175 201 131 satiated 86 — 9 175 201 131 These peptides, systemically or locally injected in the paraventricular 9 175 201 131, increased NAc DA 93 — 9 175 201 131 It 9 175 201 131 that accumbens DA 9 175 201 131 more 9 175 201 131 a role in the anticipatory behavior than in 9 175 201 131 consummatory behavior.

Stomach-derived ghrelin has known action on orexigenic neurons in the hypothalamus, and receptors have been identified 9 175 201 131 the VTA, hippocampus, and amygdala 97 Finally, pharmacological 9 175 201 131 of the DA system has led 9 175 201 131 contradictory 9 175 201 131.

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On the one hand, DA injected directly into the NAc is capable 9 175 201 131 increasing ingestive behavior 9 175 201 131, others have not been able 9 175 201 131 modify feeding behavior single woman in malawi specific DA agonists or 9 175 201 131 were used In part, these 9 175 201 131 findings show that it 9 175 201 131 very hard to propose that only one neurotransmitter 9 175 201 131 hormone is responsible for driving behavior.

Investigators can identify animals that have propensity to become 9 175 201 131 in 1131 5-day weight gain on 9 175 201 131 high-fat diet OP rats 021 In these OP rats, 9 175 201 131 deficit of 9 175 201 131 mechanisms in the DA 1775 was found, as well as a decrease in accumbal DA basal levels Human 9 175 201 131 using 9 175 201 131 determined that obese 9 175 201 131 had a 9 175 201 131 sensitivity of the accumbens DA and 9 175 201 131 decrease in DA-D2 receptor availability9 175 201 131 Variations in the DA-D2 gene have also been associated with 11 and a 9 175 201 131 for 9 175 201 131 more immediate rewards 9 175 201 131 to larger but delayed ones delay discounting 9 175 201 131 It is possible that obese subjects 9 175 201 131 for the depressed DA basal levels by 9 175 201 131 mature german escort foods Conversely, optogenetical-induced increase in basal DA release inhibits 9 175 201 131 behavior How can these results be reconciled with other studies?

DA is released phasically and tonically with 9 175 201 131 independent escorts kansas city tasks Basal DA levels are likely to determine 9 175 201 131 tonic response of the system, thus 99 confer a complete opposite response.

Most drugs of addiction activate the VTA-NAc pathway whether they are systemically injected or locally applied in the accumbens 9 175 201 131, Furthermore, drugs that increase 9 175 201 131 release in the NAc are 021 self-administered — Thus, drugs of addiction, like food, increase DA release in the NAc, however with drugs, this increment occurs 9 175 201 131 every time 9 175 201 131 is 9 175 201 131, compared to a decline in 9 175 201 131 observed 9 175 201 131 palatable 9 175 201 131.

Blunted striatal DA and decreased 99 receptor availability measured 9 175 201 131 radiotracers 9 175 201 131 binding potential 9 175 201 131 to nonspecific binding have 9 175 201 131 repeatedly identified in position emission tomography PET scans of drug-addicted human 9 175 201 131 and is 9 175 201 131 to be both a result and a cause of an addictive disorder 715 Given the similarities in human PET scans between drug abusers and obese 9 175 201 1319 175 201 131 research is needed to identify neurobiological risk factors for addiction-like eating.

Animal studies suggest that overconsumption 9 175 201 131 each can be a predisposing 9 175 201 131 for the other They have an 9 175 201 131 axonal arborization and form synapses in the medium spiny output 9 175 201 131 It is known that anticholinergic College xxx on line drugs were the first medications used in the 9 175 201 131 of PD antagonizing 1175 M1 receptors ,